Wednesday, July 8, 2020

PhD at Boston University 8 Geography Dissertation Requirements You Have to Meet at Any Cost

PhD at Boston University: 8 Geography Dissertation Requirements You Have to Meet at Any Cost Interested in completing a PhD geography dissertation at Boston University? That’s great! We’re ready to provide you with all the information you could possibly need to know about its requirements. Firstly, Boston University is a great choice to do a geography PhD because is it a leading research institution. A PhD is considered to be prestigious, but it requires a lot of work and efforts to be completed the right way. Everyone has its own requirements. We’re going to introduce the PhD requirements at Boston University: According to the Geography program, students are to complete 16 courses. This works out to 64 credits. Credit transfers are possible and should be worked out with an advisor. As a part of the 64 credits, CAS GE 516 Multivariate Analysis for Geographers (or equivalent) must be taken. Two analytical methods courses are also a part of the core requirements for the geography dissertation. One course (preferably more) must be taken in a similar field outside of the department. Towards the end of the term of a coursework, students have to pass a qualifying exam. This exam is two-part. There is a written and oral examination. The written one is on two large fields of geography. The oral one is done after students’ work (papers, other coursework exams, theses, etc.) has been reviewed by a committee. In order to demonstrate their capability of an independent study, a dissertation must be finished. The research prospectus and a proposal for this are expected. Then, a final oral exam is given for a student to defend the dissertation. Sometime after six courses have been finished and before the entire 16 courses are complete, a research paper and its presentation must be given to the department. This is a separate stage from the dissertation but is still required. During this program, students are expected to give, at least, one colloquium presentation with the purpose of showing progress in their research. This is the outline of the requirements for getting a PhD in Geography at the Boston University. The dissertation is a necessary and important part of this process. And, you should be ready to follow all these rules. Each one has even further requirements, but don’t get overwhelmed. Take every one step by step; the staff and professors at the university are there to help you. Speak to your fellow students as well. They are going through the same thing and are a helpful source of the dissertation requirements. You could even make lifelong friends or networking connections for when you get out of school. A geography dissertation is a serious undertaking and we wish you the best of luck with it! To double-check that you have met all the requirements when you have finished writing your paper, you could get further help from a writing service to get custom written dissertations online.

Thursday, July 2, 2020

Creative Paper Writing Reflection as a Team Leader - 275 Words

Creative Paper Writing Reflection as a Team Leader (Essay Sample) Content: ReflectionName:Institution:Reflection as a team leaderTeam leaders have the responsibility of providing direction, giving guidance, instructions, as well as, leadership to the team members with the aim of realizing the goals of the group. The leader has to monitor both the qualitative and the quantitative aspects of what needs to be achieved. In most cases, they work within the team and carry out similar roles to those of the members of the team. However, while carrying out these roles they have additional leadership responsibilities.The team leaders also have the responsibility of motivating the members of the team for it to function appropriately and successfully. They have to use the skills and knowledge of the team members so as to realize the shared goals.There are a variety of characteristics and traits that an effective team leader should have as they encourage the members to follow him or her. The examples of natural qualities that team leaders should possess are integrity and compassion. However, these leadership skills can be learnt through experience and formal training. Effective team leaders not only inspire trust but also respect of the team besides stimulating production.For team leaders to be successful, they have to communicate clearly. Quality skills of communication either verbally or in writing enable them to present expectation to the members in a way in which they can comprehend. It also enables them to listen to the inputs of others. Organization skill is also an important tool for the success of team leadership. These...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Essay on Crowdsourcing AOL case - 630 Words

MIS Management Information System Crowdsourcing at AOL Case Analysis 1. A brief analysis of the case study AOL engaged in what is called â€Å"micro-tasking†, and is believed to revolutionize the virtual workforce. Micro-tasking is what Daniel Maloney, an AOL executive, applied when he was faced with inventorying a vast video library. He broke the large job into small pieces and utilized a crowdsourcing IT platform, Mechanical Turk, in order to describe each task that he required to be done. Each worker was asked to find web pages containing a video and identify the video’s source and location. The project started within a week and completed in a couple of months. The total labor cost was as low as it would‘ve been to hire two man-month†¦show more content†¦He assembles and controls the entire project. 2-3. What factors should be considered when deciding whether or not to crowdsource a particular part of a business? I think the following three points implies factors to decide. 1) Any tasks that require advanced knowledge in a certain area should not be crowd sourced. Because managers controls a large number of workers and review the quality of services, critical functions related to company’s brand should not be crowd sourced. 2)Even if each company has its strategic capability, crowdsourcing vital areas that sustain company’s capabilities might lead a company to lose its advantage. 3) Crowd sourcing is more suitable for non-creative, simple works to be break into micro tasks. 2-4. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of crowdsourcing. I consider that the advantages of crowdsourcing not only reduce cost, but also provide working opportunities with a large number of general people. For example, 1) Total labor cost can be reduced. 2) It’s generally faster than hiring temp staff or traditional outsourcing firms 3)Mothers, who quit working even if they have working experiences, can utilize working opportunities in order to work as a part time job. 4) Crowdsourcing provide NEET (Not in Education, Employed and Trained) people with opportunities to join something social activities. On the other hand, disadvantage implies that 1) Dishonest companies maliciously utilize people without caring forShow MoreRelatedMarketing Management 14th Edition Test Bank Kotler Test Bank173911 Words   |  696 Pages 16) When demand is ________, it implies that more customers would like to buy the product than can be satisfied. A) latent B) irregular C) overfull D) full E) negative Answer: C Page Ref: 8 Objective: 2 Difficulty: Easy 17) In the case of ________, consumers dislike the product and may even pay a price to avoid it. A) nonexistent demand B) overfull demand C) irregular demand D) negative demand E) declining demand Answer: D Page Ref: 8 Objective: 2 Difficulty: Easy

Meaning of the French Preposiiton A Coté De

À Cà ´tà © de means next to, nearby and is very used in French - but often avoided by French students. Here are my explanations with examples. À Cà ´tà © De Next To I know this preposition looks weird. But we use it a lot in French, and therefore you should get accustomed to hearing it and understanding it fast, and also try to use it yourself. Here are some examples. Jhabite à   cà ´tà © de là ©cole.I live near the school. Il travaille à   cà ´tà © de chez moi.He works next to my house. Note that à   cà ´tà © de is often used with another weird preposition: chez (at someones home). À Cà ´tà © Nearby Je reste à   cà ´tà ©Ill stay nearby Here, the de place is not said, but understood. The sentence could be je rest à   cà ´tà © de toi, dici - next to you, next to here so it means nearby. Un à   Cà ´tà © Something on the Side, Something Extra À cà ´tà © can also be a noun: un à   cà ´tà © or des à   cà ´tà ©s but its not very common in French.   Ce travail à   des à   cà ´tà ©s trà ¨s agrà ©ables.This work has other benefits that are very nice. Un Cà ´tà © A  Side The noun un cà ´tà © is very common in French as well, and the preposition must come from it. It means a side. Cette maison a un cà ´tà © trà ¨s ensoleillà ©.This house as a very sunny side. Jaime son cà ´tà © amusant.I like her/his funny side (trait of character). Une Cà ´te A  Coast, a Rib... That is a totally different French word. Yes, an accent can change a lot in French. Une Cà ´te means a coast, a slope, a rib... Its also the name of wines produced in this region. La Cà ´te Sauvage en Bretagne est magnifique.The Wild Coast in Brittany is gorgeous. Il y a une grande cà ´te avant darriver chez lui (we would also say une pente)The is a big slope before getting to his house. Ce soir, on mange une cà ´te de boeuf.Tonight, were eating a prime rib. Jaime beaucoup le Cà ´te de Provence.I very much like the Coast of Provence wine. Une Cote A Quoted Value Quelle est la cote en bourse de cette action?What is the value in the stock market of this share? Expressions Using Cà ´tà © And of course, there are many expressions using these words: Être à   cà ´tà © de la plaque - to be way off-mark, to be cluelessAvoir la cote - to be very popularÊtre cà ´te-à  -cà ´te - to be side by side

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

SWOT ANALYSIS OF HAL - 798 Words

SWOT ANALYSIS OF HAL’S HARDWARE E-COMMERCE After reading the narrative case study of HAL’S hardware, let me first introduce to you in my own opinion about the SWOT analysis. First and foremost, a SWOT analysis is a strategy in which companies could assess there situational standing for the development and the good of there business and transactions. According to Khushboo in India, â€Å"it’s like a mirror to oneself. It tells where the person stands. Strength, gives power. One should analyze his weaknesses. Opportunities should be grabbed and one should overcome his threats†. Yes, I agree to him. Of course, when you are putting up a business you need to know the strength, weaknesses, opportunities and your threats so that it yields good†¦show more content†¦In addition to that, it also helps other companies and suppliers. Running a website is really a big help. It can expand services and features; and because of that, there is an opportunity to increase number of costumers because of its unreachable state. THREATS These are the threats that could possibly encounter when using an electronic website: since it is online, it is vulnerable to the hackers who have bad motives for attacking a website. Company-costumer relationship can also be affected because the costumer can longer buy smaller items and there will no longer interactions between them. Security is a very sensitive issue when it comes to online shopping, it must have high security for the costumers good. Also, competitions even savage because internet has no limit. In order, for the HHI’s to compete, business strategy is a good answer. RECOMMENDATION Here are some recommendations that I think would help the HHI Company: †¢website should be catchy with more advertisements and information so that it can attract buyers and they could. †¢trusted, honest and equipped personnel should be the one who will maintain the site. †¢there should be exceptions or limited products to be ordered online. †¢the site should have online training courses and consultations for the costumers. †¢there should have an increase of site’s security. †¢there’s a need to encourage costumers to create an account to reduce risk of attackersShow MoreRelatedBUS210 Assgn 1 Essay2094 Words   |  9 PagesHals Woodworking 1: Conduct a SWOT analysis for the new Hals Woodworking online business. You can use the information in the case narrative, your personal knowledge of the retail hardware and tool industry, and information you obtain by following the web links or doing independent searches of the web as you conduct your analysis. You should create a diagram similar to figure 1-12 to summarize your SWOT analysis results. SWOT Analysis Strengths Friendly NeighborhoodRead MoreGoogles Strategy in 20101004 Words   |  5 Pagesextremely well all over the board. Their debt ratio is low sitting at 11 percent. They paid their bills on time because their receivables turnover is sitting at 7 percent. Investors know that Google is a good company to buy stock into. Perform a SWOT analysis of Google. Strengths Number one search engine with established name Simple interface-user friendly Their interface has 88 different languages-Global usage Localized search results Infrastructure Weakness Contextual ads targeted by clickRead MoreManaging A Change Management Strategy The Company Will Use The Stakeholder Circle1371 Words   |  6 Pagesproduct supplier As such, to utilize the Stakeholder Circle one appropriate change management model the Hilton hotels will use elements of the ADKAR model to implement a customer tracking and leads management system in the Spa department of Hilton Rose Hal Resort Spa 1. Creating clear vision and reaffirming values. 2. Creating urgency, building awareness on significance of the new service system and its benefits to them. 3. Creating a coalition team, agreeing on steps to increase customer communicationRead MoreMarketing Strategy Essay998 Words   |  4 PagesYearly turnover = 72 lacs Profit = 30% = 1.8 lacs Marketing expenditure : 84500 Total profit after exp = 95500 Estimated Profits : 110500 Projected profit : 206000 Total expected turnover = 6.2 lacs Expected Yearly turnover = 74.4 lacs 1. SWOT analysis for the company Strengths †¢ Located at prime location. †¢ Separate Kitchen for veg and non veg. †¢ Serve multicuisine food. †¢ Lodging facility. This adds to an advantage over its rivals like KFC. Weakness †¢ Unprofessional staff. †¢ No marketingRead MoreTeori5231 Words   |  21 PagesMenurut McLeod (2001, p12), informasi adalah data yang telah diproses, atau data yang memiliki arti. 3. Informasi adalah sekumpulan data yang diorganisasikan ke dalam bentuk yang berguna (Turban, 2001, p17). 4. Data adalah fakta atau deskripsi dari hal, kejadian, kegiatan, dan transaksi yang ditangkap, disimpan, dan dikelompokan, tetapi tidak diorganisasikan untuk menghasilkan pengertian tertentu (Turban, 2001, p17). Kesimpulannya, informasi adalah kumpulan data yang telah diorganisasikan sedemikianRead MoreStarbucks4530 Words   |  19 Pagesjawab kita †¢ Menanamkan tanggung jawab terhadap lingkungan sebagai nilai perusahaan †¢ Mengukur dan memantau kemajuan kita untuk setiap proyek †¢ Mendorong semua mitra untuk turut ambil bagian dalam misi kami SWOT ANALYSIS A. Strength a. Merupakan kedai kopi asing pertama yang membuka tenant di Indonesia b. Memiliki komunikasi yang baik dan lancar dengan para petani kopi c. Memiliki pilihan kopi yang cukup beragam, customer dapat membuat kopiRead MoreMarketing Proposal3230 Words   |  13 Pages†© New†©York†©Fries†Ã¢â‚¬ ©Potato†© Noodle†© Table†©of†©Contents†© EXECUTIVE SUMMARY†© INTRODUCTION: THE COMPANY†© NEW PRODUCT IDEA CUSTOMER NEEDS AND WANTS TARGETED†©MARKET†©SEGMENT†© SWOT†©ANALYSIS†© BRANDING†©AND†©POSITIONING†© PRICING†© PROMOTION†© PLACE†©(MARKETING†©CHANNEL)†© APPENDIX†© 3†© 4†© 4 5 6†© 6†© 9†© 11†© 11†© 14†© 16†© †© †© †© †© †© 2†© EXECUTIVE SUMMARY New York Fries (NYF) is a Canadian franchise that specializes in potato, in particular French fries and hot dogs. There are few issues with the companyRead MorePG Strategic Plan8305 Words   |  34 PagesMission and Vision Statements 6-7 Strategic Assessment 7-21 External Forces Evaluation Matrix 8-13 Internal Forces Evaluation Matrix 13-18 Financial and Operational Analysis 18-21 Strategic Recommendations 21-31 The Grand Strategy Matrix 21-24 Internal-External Matrix 24-27 SWOT Matrix 27-28 Strategy Selections 29-31 Action Plan 31-32 Implementation Activities 31-32 Implementation Risks and Mitigation 32 Conclusion 33-34Read MoreStart of a Case Analsis3508 Words   |  15 Pagesmarketing of posters, cards, etc. developed from Special Collections materials, and the operation of a Friends of the Library gift shop. Prepared by: Erik de Bruijn January 25, 2000 C:\my documents\library\planning\swot\swotlistfinalrev2staff General Walmart Objectives: SWOT Analysis Wal-Mart Strengths * Wal-Mart is a powerful retail brand. It has a reputation for value for money, convenience and a wide range of products all in one store. * Wal-Mart has grown substantially over recentRead MoreBae System13839 Words   |  56 PagesFinancial Analysis CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Valuation of the Company 2.1 An evaluation of BAE Systems’ current position and its future prospects 2.2 Assessment of the value of BAE Systems based on the application of suitable cash flow based valuation techniques 2.3 Assessment of the value of BAE Systems based on the application of suitable accounting based valuation techniques 3. Comparison of the valuation with the ‘market’ valuation 4. Appendices 4.1 Appendix 1: PEST Analysis 4.2

The Effects Of Advertising On The Fashion Industry

The misleading body image advertised on the cover of Fashion Magazines such as Vogue and Teen Vogue, create a prejudice among women in the United States that motivates individuals to believe that there is only one body type that is beautiful and successful in society. This harmful advertising has a causal relationship with the increase in eating disorders and depression seen in young women (Kilbourne, 2000). Because Magazines are a powerful marketing tool; this type of advertising leads to a cultural bias known as â€Å"Weightism† (Kilbourne, 2000). Creative directors and editors at Vogue and Teen Vogue should advertise diverse body types on the cover of their magazines in North America. The standard body was much curvier and more attainable†¦show more content†¦Sometimes girls can understand that this superficial body is unattainable, but they feel shame and failure just the same (Kilbourne, 2014). Young women exposed to this misleading body image on the cover of magazines such as Vogue and Teen Vogue are being harmed physically, mentally and financially. Images projected on the cover of magazines can not be directly linked to causing eating disorders among young girls (Kilbourne, 2000). However, these magazines create a cultural prejudice that belittles that do not fit the body image projected in those magazines (Kilbourne, 2014). The ads represented in magazines sexualize beautiful young women. These beautiful women are rewarded in magazines with attention from men represented by these creative decisions that display women as objects (Kilbourne, 2014). Kilbourne, a professional who has dedicated over 40 years to researching the harmful effects of media says that young women are introduced to these type of ads so young that they believe it is normal. Young women attain more body fat as their bodies develop and grow due to normal physiological changes during puberty (Kilbourne, 2000). Since the changes to their bodies are different than those represented in the ads and fashion magazines, young women are more motivated and concerned by their physical weight and how to control it (Kilbourne, 2000). Studies show that by age 12, one third of girls try to lose weight byShow MoreRelatedThe World Is A Super Tool Essay1276 Words   |  6 Pagesthat has brought the world together while at the same time creating a gap between the haves and the have-nots. Consumer culture has become an integral part of Western culture. Brands and companies have blurred the lines between wants and needs. Advertising in such a way is aimed to bring more convince and options to the consumer. In reality, this type of tactic is most beneficial to the corporation. What’s more, practices such as planned obsolescence further fuels the consumer cycle. Big businessRead MoreThe Fashion : Unrealistic And Harmful Perceptions Of Beauty1500 Words   |  6 PagesThe Fashion Industrys ’ Unrealistic and Harmful Perceptions of Beauty As you are flipping through the pages of any fashion magazine, you see that they are plastered with freakishly skinny, young women made up to resemble perfect barbie dolls. If you are the average american girl, you would probably be feeling a little more insecure about yourself than when you first opened the magazine. You begin to realize everything that you wish you could look like and are stuck comparing yourself to images thatRead MoreMarketing And Advertising Of Fashion Marketing Essay1413 Words   |  6 Pagesmarketing and advertising play a critical role in the fashion industry; they are various activities involved in building consumer relationships and stimulating consumer purchases by satisfying their needs. The primary goal of fashion marketing is evident: supplying the right merchandise, to the right customers, at the right time, in the right place. Often confused as marketing, Advertising is a subset of marketing; it is a single component of promotion in the marketing mix. The process of fashion marketingRead MoreAnalysis of the Fashion Industry1301 Words   |  6 PagesFashion is one of the world’s most important creative industries. It has provided economic thought with a canonical example in theorizing about consumption and conformity. Social thinkers have long treated fashion as a window upon social class and social change. Cultural theorists have focused on fashion to reflect on symbolic meaning and social ideals. Fashion has also been seen to embody representative characteristics of modernity, and even of culture itself. Everyone wears clothing and inevitablyRead MoreThe Social World Has Created Lasting Effects On The Lives Of People That They Must Deal With Every Day1356 Words   |  6 PagesThe pornification (or alternatively pornographication) of the social world has created lasting effects in the lives of people that they must deal with every day (Dines 1998, p. 164). Pornification is the process by which the social and cultura l world is sexualised. This occurs through the expansion of media technology and the pornography industry, as well as changes in media regulations and restrictions which allow pornographic imagery to intrude into public spaces (Tyler 2011, p. 79). This essayRead MoreTheu.s. Congress, The Fashion Industry1172 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to the Joint Economic Committee of the U.S. Congress, the fashion is a nearly $250 billion dollars industry in the United States alone and a $1.2 Trillion industry worldwide. Although they account for roughly 17,000 high end jobs in the United States they only account for 144,000 middle range workers and very limited low end manufacturing workers. As with many manufacturing jobs they have been outsourced overseas to places like India and China. In those countries there are far fewer regulationsRead MoreThe Rates Of Consumption Continue To Climb Over The Next1736 Words   |  7 Pagespoint where it cannot sustain any more activity. Society can f ix some of the issues generated by the clothing industry by treating clothes as a bare necessity, not a disposable product. Another reason why tremendous amounts of clothing is disposed of in landfills during our modern era is because of the constantly changing trends in the world of fashion. The introduction of fast fashion to the market has altered the old standard of Spring/Summer and Fall/Winter trends. Instead, clothing brands suchRead MoreThe Basics Of Building A Wardrobe1395 Words   |  6 PagesFinally 22 will be providing clients both trendy styles and quality clothing when it comes to today’s apparel stepping up a notch from the mass market items that wear quickly compared to better quality items that last a lifetime. For the fashion savvy minded consumer the clothing lines will concentrate on current trends and accessories for changing the looks easily from casual to dressy. The basics of building a wardrobe that’s ready for any occasion is to shop with the current trends in mind andRead MoreThe Culture of the 1920s in America Essay1707 Words   |  7 Pagesa vital part in hel ping America become the great economic and cultural success that it was during the 1920s. New advancements, new discoveries, and new inventions improved American lives in every imaginable way but not without a few negative side-effects. As mentioned earlier, the automobile really came into play during the 1920s by making traveling a common thing for anyone who could afford a car (Trueman, 2000). Henry Ford started the Ford Motor Company, which began to mass produce affordable automobilesRead MoreAdvertisement Is An Essential Part Of Our Social Life1248 Words   |  5 Pagestoday`s world. Advertising industry imposes us what we want or what we seem to want in our lives. Advertising industry sets unrealistic goals for men and women showing them how they must look and behave to be popular. No need to be a psychoanalyst to see how objectification and sexualization of both genders distorts perception of consumers. And it is getting very difficult in our world to understand how much you r own image of a â€Å"real man† or a â€Å"real woman† was influenced by advertising. So in this

Substitution And Performance Expectations -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Substitution And Performance Expectations? Answer: Introduction In modern day, technology is the biggest driving force for the economic development in the world. From the past century, technology has been under constant development that is further accelerated with time. Generally, an older technology is slowly replaced by a new technology though transitional phases (Guttentag, 2015). However, in some cases, the new technology is implemented abruptly for replacing another technology that is already established and working. This type of technology is called disruptive technology. This type of technology can be noticed in almost all industries and has been able to bring significant changes in the industries. In Australia, disruptive technology has been significantly implemented in the hotel and hospitality industry and has been able to bring massive changes in the tourism industry in various states of Australia (Jones, Hillier Comfort, 2016). Initially, for a long time, the hotels of Australia was run by the same system all over until the 2nd decad e of the 21st century, when the entire industry was completely revolutionized with the entry of new and better technologies. In this report, disruptive technology and its types have been analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, the hospitality industry in Australia has been analyzed regarding the already existing technology that is extremely used and the effects of disruptive technology on the same. Findings and Discussions Disrupting technology is a new and advanced innovation that has the ability to replace an older version of similar technology entirely by creating a new value in terms of market or function. Unlike transitional implementation of some technologies, disruptive technology is implemented rapidly by replacing the current setup. Some of the most notable disruptive technologies are as follows. Academic Content One of the most well known disruptive technologies in the current world is the innovation of Wikipedia an online data source and contains significant amount of information on almost every possible thing in the world. Before the invention of Wikipedia, the bulk information containing material was Encyclopedia Britannica a set of hardbound books that used to list and describe about various things and subjects (Smith Guttentag, 2017). However, with the availability of the online source (Wikipedia), the popularity of Encyclopedia decreased rapidly due to its physical space, weight and time consuming to find a particular piece of information and in 2012, the printing of Encyclopedia was closed down completely. Data Storage Previously in the initial computing devices, data storage was mainly done on low space physical drives like floppy discs, CDs, DVDs and others. However, with the invention of flash drives like pen drive and more recently cloud storage system, these physical storage drives became obsolete. Computing Computing also experienced significant disruptive technology throughout its course of development. Initially, the basic computing actions like mathematical calculations were done using calculators or manually. This was replaced by the desktop computers that were faster and better devices for computation purposes (Xiang et al., 2015). More recently, these computing processes are done by smartphones that are easy to manage, carry and operate. Disruptive Technology in Australian Hotel and Hospitality Industry Like every other technology, hospitality industry has been significantly affected by disruptive technology worldwide. This also includes Australia, where the disruptive technology has changed the entire structure of the hospitality industry. One of the most common and popular disruptive technology that has changed the Australian hotel industry is the OTA (Online Travel Agency). Some existing technologies and the new disruptive technology are discussed below. Previously Existing Technology In the previous system, the hotel industry of Australia was mainly run manually except for the data entry and storage. In this system, when a tourist wanted to book a room or a tour in Australia, he had to call the agency or hotel authority and book the services accordingly. There were also booking systems on spot that were managed on first come first served basis (Palacios-Marqus, Merig Soto-Acosta, 2015). After the booking was done and deal finalized, the personal details of the tourists were entered in forms manually and these papers were stored by the authority. Furthermore, when the tourists paid the money for the deal, the receipts were made in papers and a copy was saved by the authority. The main issue of this system was the unreliability of paper documents as long term records for the dealings. Paper documents can easily be damaged, tampered or misplaced resulting in loss of valuable information of the hotels as well as the tourists (Sigala, 2017). Furthermore, due to manua l handling of the operations, the process was very slow and erroneous. Hence, a new system was needed that could entirely change this system with a faster, better and efficient data operation and storage. Online Travel Agents (OTA) For Australian tourism landscape, online travel agents or OTA have brought about disruptive innovation that the entire tourism management process completely. The features of OTA are explained in the following points. Online Booking Instead of calling or directly contracting the hotel authority or travel agents, the tourist now has the option of online booking. Using a simple internet connection, the tourist can now visit the company / hotels website for booking services. Most of these websites have detailed informative pages regarding the details of the organization, services, packages, contact numbers and others. For hotel based websites, there are detailed information regarding type and availability of rooms, rates of the rooms, pictorial illustration of the rooms, availability of air conditioning system, food and others (Parker, Van Alstyne Choudary, 2016). For travel agencies, the websites contain information regarding various schemes of tour packages along with the prices so that the tourist can choose a package that suits him the most. From all these details, the tourist can have a very detailed idea of the services and he does not need to contact the authorities directly. With more recen t developments, the tourists can now book services directly online and pay their money through online transactions. Not only this process is extremely fast, there is lack of any error and it also removes the need for paper documentations for storing the booking information and the tourists personal data. Trip Planning OTA also assists tourists who are not interested in booking services online. For the tourists who are only seeking travel plans and route maps, OTA can be extremely useful. If the tourist just enters the source and destination as well as the number of days he is willing to spend, the OTA can generate a suitable and detailed trip planning that includes all the important places to be visited and all the available hotels in the areas (Chathoth et al., 2016). Furthermore, in order to assist the tourists, the OTA gives the option to filter the types of hotels according to their prices, types, service availability and others. OTA also provides suitable recommendations for car booking, food stops and other relevant trip information. Discounts and Offers One main and exciting feature of the OTA is the availability of huge discounts in certain seasons for online booking of hotels or travel guides. With a large number of OTA growing up rapidly in Australia, each organization is competing with another and hence, provides as high discount as possible for online booking customers (Bowie et al., 2016). As a result, the tourists can often avail good discounts even if they choose high end expensive hotels. However, it is the responsibility of the tourists to find the best offers by comparing different OTAs. Advanced Web Search During planning trips online, the tourists often find it hard to find certain places or hotels due to less popularity or obscurity (Turban et al., 2017). The OTAs provide the tourists with detailed maps where each and every place, hotels, travel requirements and others are marked and additionally, the tourist has the option to find them using simple keywords in the search menu provided in the website. Language Support In the previous system, the tourists often faced significant problem in communicating with the hotel authorities or travel agencies due to language barrier. This was more common in non-english speaking tourists with little or no exposure to English or even the native language of the tourist spot (Fraj, Matute Melero, 2015). However, the OTA websites come with support for a wide variety of languages and hence, the tourist is able to get significant amount of information in his own language easily. Impact of OTA on Australian Tourism From the analysis of the growth and development of Australian tourism industry, it can be said OTA has significantly accelerated the growth of Australian tourism. Before the implementation of OTA, tourism was not very well developed that was mainly due to the harsh and unfavorable landscape in Australia as well as lack of sufficient knowledge regarding the tourist places that existed in the country. With the OTA, the tourists came to know more about the country and also with the fast and efficient processing of their bookings, the growth of tourism in Australia was significantly accelerated (Taneja, 2016). The growth of tourism in Australia since 2000 is evident from the graph shown below. Impact of Disruptive Technology in Hospitality Industry on Other Sectors in Australia The disruptive technologies in the hospitality industry of Australia have also significantly affected other sectors in Australia including commerce, education and others. From a study, it has been found that since the changes in hospitality policies due to disruptive technologies, the education system of Australia underwent a massive change (Veijola et al., 2014). The number of international students in Australia grew rapidly as thousands of students seeking quality education from various Asian countries, New Zealand, Middle East, Europe or even USA are coming to various universities in Australia. The number of international student enrolments in Australia is shown in the following graphical illustration. From the graph, it can be seen that after 2001, the enrolment count gained a massive boost and huge growth in the number is seen in the following years. From this, it can be safely deduced that this massive growth owes to the advent of disruptive technologies in Australia. Future Trends of Disruptive Technology With the current trends of changes and developments, some future trends of disruptive technology in Australia can be further deduced. From the rapid growth of technology worldwide, it is evident that very soon, even more disruptive technologies will come very soon (Cheng, 2016). Even in the case of hospitality industry, there will be more disruptive technologies in the very near future. Scientists and developers are currently researching on development of more advanced OTA features and are also trying to integrate artificial intelligence with the same. With more advanced features and well developed AI, more changes can be expected in the hospitality industry. One area that needs to be explored in the upcoming technologies is the security of personal information and online payments from the customers end. In the current system, various cyber security threats can cause loss of personal information, payment details as well as money (while performing online transactions) (Salvioni, 2016). Hence, these issues need to be addressed before rolling out further disruptive updates. Conclusion From the entire analysis, it has been found that disruptive technologies have significant and major impacts on Australian hospitality industry that in turn has affected other industries as well. Major disruptive technologies like OTA have revolutionized the tourism system in Australia and provide the tourists with easy options of online trip planning, booking, payments and others. In addition, these technologies have significantly improved the quality of hospitality in Australia that has also helped the growth of education and commercial sectors of Australia. In the last few years, the international enrolments in Australia have received massive boost and the commercial sector has been enhanced with the entry of new business organizations along with the recruitment of international employees. 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